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Manage Dependencies#

PDM provides a bunch of useful commands to help manage your project and dependencies. The following examples are run on Ubuntu 18.04, a few changes must be done if you are using Windows.

Add dependencies#

pdm add can be followed by one or several dependencies, and the dependency specification is described in PEP 508.

Examples:

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pdm add requests   # add requests
pdm add requests==2.25.1   # add requests with version constraint
pdm add requests[socks]   # add requests with extra dependency
pdm add "flask>=1.0" flask-sqlalchemy   # add multiple dependencies with different specifiers

PDM also allows extra dependency groups by providing -G/--group <name> option, and those dependencies will go to [project.optional-dependencies.<name>] table in the project file, respectively.

You can reference other optional groups in optional-dependencies, even before the package is uploaded:

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[project]
name = "foo"
version = "0.1.0"

[project.optional-dependencies]
socks = ["pysocks"]
jwt = ["pyjwt"]
all = ["foo[socks,jwt]"]

After that, dependencies and sub-dependencies will be resolved properly and installed for you, you can view pdm.lock to see the resolved result of all dependencies.

Local dependencies#

Local packages can be added with their paths. The path can be a file or a directory:

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pdm add ./sub-package
pdm add ./first-1.0.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl

The paths MUST start with a ., otherwise it will be recognized as a normal named requirement. The local dependencies will be written to the pyproject.toml file with the URL format:

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[project]
dependencies = [
    "sub-package @ file:///${PROJECT_ROOT}/sub-package",
    "first @ file:///${PROJECT_ROOT}/first-1.0.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl",
]
Using other build backends

If you are using hatchling instead of the pdm backend, the URLs would be as follows:

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sub-package @ {root:uri}/sub-package
first @ {root:uri}/first-1.0.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Other backends doesn't support encoding relative paths in the URL and will write the absolute path instead.

URL dependencies#

PDM also supports downloading and installing packages directly from a web address.

Examples:

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# Install gzipped package from a plain URL
pdm add "https://github.com/numpy/numpy/releases/download/v1.20.0/numpy-1.20.0.tar.gz"
# Install wheel from a plain URL
pdm add "https://github.com/explosion/spacy-models/releases/download/en_core_web_trf-3.5.0/en_core_web_trf-3.5.0-py3-none-any.whl"

VCS dependencies#

You can also install from a git repository url or other version control systems. The following are supported:

  • Git: git
  • Mercurial: hg
  • Subversion: svn
  • Bazaar: bzr

The URL should be like: {vcs}+{url}@{rev}

Examples:

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# Install pip repo on tag `22.0`
pdm add "git+https://github.com/pypa/[email protected]"
# Provide credentials in the URL
pdm add "git+https://username:[email protected]/username/private-repo.git@master"
# Give a name to the dependency
pdm add "pip @ git+https://github.com/pypa/[email protected]"
# Or use the #egg fragment
pdm add "git+https://github.com/pypa/[email protected]#egg=pip"
# Install from a subdirectory
pdm add "git+https://github.com/owner/repo.git@master#egg=pkg&subdirectory=subpackage"

To use ssh scheme for git, just replace https:// to ssh://git@

Example:

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pdm add "wheel @ git+ssh://[email protected]/pypa/wheel.git@main"

Hide credentials in the URL#

You can hide the credentials in the URL by using the ${ENV_VAR} variable syntax:

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[project]
dependencies = [
  "mypackage @ git+http://${VCS_USER}:${VCS_PASSWD}@test.git.com/test/mypackage.git@master"
]

These variables will be read from the environment variables when installing the project.

Add development only dependencies#

Added in version 1.5.0

PDM also supports defining groups of dependencies that are useful for development, e.g. some for testing and others for linting. We usually don't want these dependencies appear in the distribution's metadata so using optional-dependencies is probably not a good idea. We can define them as development dependencies:

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pdm add -dG test pytest

This will result in a pyproject.toml as following:

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[tool.pdm.dev-dependencies]
test = ["pytest"]

You can have several groups of development only dependencies. Unlike optional-dependencies, they won't appear in the package distribution metadata such as PKG-INFO or METADATA. The package index won't be aware of these dependencies. The schema is similar to that of optional-dependencies, except that it is in tool.pdm table.

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[tool.pdm.dev-dependencies]
lint = [
    "flake8",
    "black"
]
test = ["pytest", "pytest-cov"]
doc = ["mkdocs"]

For backward-compatibility, if only -d or --dev is specified, dependencies will go to dev group under [tool.pdm.dev-dependencies] by default.

Note

The same group name MUST NOT appear in both [tool.pdm.dev-dependencies] and [project.optional-dependencies].

Editable dependencies#

Local directories and VCS dependencies can be installed in editable mode. If you are familiar with pip, it is just like pip install -e <package>. Editable packages are allowed only in development dependencies:

Note

Editable installs are only allowed in the dev dependency group. Other groups, including the default, will fail with a [PdmUsageError].

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# A relative path to the directory
pdm add -e ./sub-package --dev
# A file URL to a local directory
pdm add -e file:///path/to/sub-package --dev
# A VCS URL
pdm add -e git+https://github.com/pallets/click.git@main#egg=click --dev

Save version specifiers#

If the package is given without a version specifier like pdm add requests. PDM provides three different behaviors of what version specifier is saved for the dependency, which is given by --save-<strategy>(Assume 2.21.0 is the latest version that can be found for the dependency):

  • minimum: Save the minimum version specifier: >=2.21.0 (default).
  • compatible: Save the compatible version specifier: >=2.21.0,<3.0.0.
  • exact: Save the exact version specifier: ==2.21.0.
  • wildcard: Don't constrain version and leave the specifier to be wildcard: *.

Add prereleases#

One can give --pre/--prerelease option to pdm add so that prereleases are allowed to be pinned for the given packages.

Update existing dependencies#

To update all dependencies in the lock file:

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pdm update

To update the specified package(s):

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pdm update requests

To update multiple groups of dependencies:

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pdm update -G security -G http

Or using comma-separated list:

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pdm update -G "security,http"

To update a given package in the specified group:

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pdm update -G security cryptography

If the group is not given, PDM will search for the requirement in the default dependencies set and raises an error if none is found.

To update packages in development dependencies:

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# Update all default + dev-dependencies
pdm update -d
# Update a package in the specified group of dev-dependencies
pdm update -dG test pytest

About update strategy#

Similarly, PDM also provides 3 different behaviors of updating dependencies and sub-dependencies๏ผŒ which is given by --update-<strategy> option:

  • reuse: Keep all locked dependencies except for those given in the command line (default).
  • reuse-installed: Try to reuse the versions installed in the working set. This will also affect the packages requested in the command line.
  • eager: Try to lock a newer version of the packages in command line and their recursive sub-dependencies and keep other dependencies as they are.
  • all: Update all dependencies and sub-dependencies.

Update packages to the versions that break the version specifiers#

One can give -u/--unconstrained to tell PDM to ignore the version specifiers in the pyproject.toml. This works similarly to the yarn upgrade -L/--latest command. Besides, pdm update also supports the --pre/--prerelease option.

Remove existing dependencies#

To remove existing dependencies from project file and the library directory:

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# Remove requests from the default dependencies
pdm remove requests
# Remove h11 from the 'web' group of optional-dependencies
pdm remove -G web h11
# Remove pytest-cov from the `test` group of dev-dependencies
pdm remove -dG test pytest-cov

List outdated packages and the latest versions#

Added in version 2.13.0

To list outdated packages and the latest versions:

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pdm outdated

You can pass glob patterns to filter the packages to show:

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pdm outdated requests* flask*

Select a subset of dependency groups to install#

Say we have a project with following dependencies:

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[project]  # This is production dependencies
dependencies = ["requests"]

[project.optional-dependencies]  # This is optional dependencies
extra1 = ["flask"]
extra2 = ["django"]

[tool.pdm.dev-dependencies]  # This is dev dependencies
dev1 = ["pytest"]
dev2 = ["mkdocs"]
Command What it does Comments
pdm install install all groups locked in the lockfile
pdm install -G extra1 install prod deps, dev deps, and "extra1" optional group
pdm install -G dev1 install prod deps and only "dev1" dev group
pdm install -G:all install prod deps, dev deps and "extra1", "extra2" optional groups
pdm install -G extra1 -G dev1 install prod deps, "extra1" optional group and only "dev1" dev group
pdm install --prod install prod only
pdm install --prod -G extra1 install prod deps and "extra1" optional
pdm install --prod -G dev1 Fail, --prod can't be given with dev dependencies Leave the --prod option

All development dependencies are included as long as --prod is not passed and -G doesn't specify any dev groups.

Besides, if you don't want the root project to be installed, add --no-self option, and --no-editable can be used when you want all packages to be installed in non-editable versions.

You may also use the pdm lock command with these options to lock only the specified groups, which will be recorded in the [metadata] table of the lock file. If no --group/--prod/--dev/--no-default option is specified, pdm sync and pdm update will operate using the groups in the lockfile. However, if any groups that are not included in the lockfile are given as arguments to the commands, PDM will raise an error.

Show what packages are installed#

Similar to pip list, you can list all packages installed in the packages directory:

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pdm list

Include and exclude groups#

By default, all packages installed in the working set will be listed. You can specify which groups to be listed by --include/--exclude options, and include has a higher priority than exclude.

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pdm list --include dev
pdm list --exclude test

There is a special group :sub, when included, all transitive dependencies will also be shown. It is included by default.

You can also pass --resolve to pdm list, which will show the packages resolved in pdm.lock, rather than installed in the working set.

Change the output fields and format#

By default, name, version and location will be shown in the list output, you can view more fields or specify the order of fields by --fields option:

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pdm list --fields name,licenses,version

For all supported fields, please refer to the CLI reference.

Also, you can specify the output format other than the default table output. The supported formats and options are --csv, --json, --markdown and --freeze.

Show the dependency tree#

Or show a dependency tree by:

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$ pdm list --tree
tempenv 0.0.0
โ””โ”€โ”€ click 7.0 [ required: <7.0.0,>=6.7 ]
black 19.10b0
โ”œโ”€โ”€ appdirs 1.4.3 [ required: Any ]
โ”œโ”€โ”€ attrs 19.3.0 [ required: >=18.1.0 ]
โ”œโ”€โ”€ click 7.0 [ required: >=6.5 ]
โ”œโ”€โ”€ pathspec 0.7.0 [ required: <1,>=0.6 ]
โ”œโ”€โ”€ regex 2020.2.20 [ required: Any ]
โ”œโ”€โ”€ toml 0.10.0 [ required: >=0.9.4 ]
โ””โ”€โ”€ typed-ast 1.4.1 [ required: >=1.4.0 ]
bump2version 1.0.0

Note that --fields option doesn't work with --tree.

Filter packages by patterns#

You can also limit the packages to show by passing the patterns to pdm list:

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pdm list flask-* requests-*
Be careful with the shell expansion

In most shells, the wildcard * will be expanded if there are matching files under the current directory. To avoid getting unexpected results, you can wrap the patterns with single quotes: pdm list 'flask-*' 'requests-*'.

In --tree mode, only the subtree of the matched packages will be displayed. This can be used to achieve the same purpose as pnpm why, which is to show why a specific package is required.

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$ pdm list --tree --reverse certifi
certifi 2023.7.22
โ””โ”€โ”€ requests 2.31.0 [ requires: >=2017.4.17 ]
    โ””โ”€โ”€ cachecontrol[filecache] 0.13.1 [ requires: >=2.16.0 ]

Manage global project#

Sometimes users may want to keep track of the dependencies of global Python interpreter as well. It is easy to do so with PDM, via -g/--global option which is supported by most subcommands.

If the option is passed, <CONFIG_ROOT>/global-project will be used as the project directory, which is almost the same as normal project except that pyproject.toml will be created automatically for you and it doesn't support build features. The idea is taken from Haskell's stack.

However, unlike stack, by default, PDM won't use global project automatically if a local project is not found. Users should pass -g/--global explicitly to activate it, since it is not very pleasing if packages go to a wrong place. But PDM also leave the decision to users, just set the config global_project.fallback to true.

By default, when pdm uses global project implicitly the following message is printed: Project is not found, fallback to the global project. To disable this message set the config global_project.fallback_verbose to false.

If you want global project to track another project file other than <CONFIG_ROOT>/global-project, you can provide the project path via -p/--project <path> option. Especially if you pass --global --project ., PDM will install the dependencies of the current project into the global Python.

Warning

Be careful with remove and sync --clean/--pure commands when global project is used, because it may remove packages installed in your system Python.